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    family income from age 6 and age 10 assessments.1 MeanPredictors Race of mother (White) Age of mother at time 1 Sex of adolescent (male) Age of adolescent Childhood family income1 Dysregulation prole (DP) at age 6 Dysregulation prole (DP) at age 10 Peer cigarette use at age 10 Depression scores at age 10 Depression scores at age 14 Authoritative parenting at age 14 Pubertal timing Pubertal Timing ?RaceTABLE 3: Final step of logistic regression model predicting recent cannabis use ( = 263). Beta 2.64 -0.17 0.41 1.23 -0.03 2.11 -2.08 -1.00 0.00 0.07 -0.56 0.93 -2.82 S.E. 0.87 0.20 0.48 0.37 0.02 0.94 1.45 0.54 0.03 0.03 0.30 0.39 0.91 Wald 9.31 0.72 0.76 11.31 1.91 4.99 2.06 3.47 0.00 5.12 3.52 5.74 j.cub.2015.05.021 9.70 Exp (B) 14.0 0.85 1.51 three.42 0.97 8.23 0.13 0.37 1.00 1.07 0.57 2.54 0.< .05, < .01. family income from age 6 and age 10 assessments.Condence intervals 2.57?6.2 0.57?.25 0.60?.83 1.67?.01 0.93?.01 1.30?2.3 0.01?.15 0.13?.05 0.95?.06 1.01?.13 0.32?.03 1.18?.44 0.01?.6 more likely to have recently used cannabis. By contrast, the African-American offspring who matured later appeared to be at greater risk of recent cannabis use than AfricanAmerican offspring who matured earlier than their peers.50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Early puberty Black offspring White offspring On timeISRN Addiction4. Discussionis was the rst study to examine DP in offspring of teenage mothers and to associate childhood DP with early cannabis use in these vulnerable adolescents. DP at age 6 was a signicant predictor of cannabis use at age 14, suggesting that it may be possible to identify children at risk of substance abuse at an early age within this vulnerable group. DP was correlated across middle childhood in this cohort, consistent with Althoff et 1940-0640-8-15 al. [4]. Even so, DP at age 10 did not predict cannabis use by age 14, contrary to our hypotheses. It really is probable that behavioral dysregulation at age six could be specially detrimental for behavioral threat, at age of entry into the Rther supporting the notion that plasma extravasation is prevalent in aged college method. is is often a developmental period when children develop into independent from their families and invest their entire day at college, studying to focus on new cognitive tasks and stay away from disrupting the classroom. ey have to also understand to kind and nurture peer relationships that happen to be less managed by their households even though at college. Young children who fail to meet these challenges at a young age might be particularly vulnerable to early cannabis use when compared with young children who only grow to be really dysregulated by age ten. Age 6, DP was also linked with possessing a lot more peers who employed cigarettes by age 10, suggesting that 1 potential pathway from early dysregulation to early cannabis use is association with deviant peers. Nevertheless, there was a separate independent effect of age six DP on cannabis use at age 14, aer controlling for the effects of age 10 peer cigarette use and age 14 depressive symptoms, indicating an additive effect of childhood DP on danger for adolescent can.